gallic acid mechanism of action

Similar trend was found for TNF-α, ROS and MDA (Table 2). For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Elaine Cruz Rosas, ... Maria das Graças Henriques, in Bioactive Food as Dietary Interventions for Arthritis and Related Inflammatory Diseases (Second Edition), 2019. The day-1 (HH Stage 46) chicks were collected. Gallic Acid as Neuroprotective Agent. However, gallic acid indicated no linear dependence on both [InH] −1 and [InH] −0.5, which showed that the radicals of gallic acid were included in more than one reaction of chain propagation (Figure 6b). Rabbit antibodies to cervical muscle tissue Ras (1:1000), Raf (1:1000), GRB2 (1:1000), LIFR (1:1000), gp130 (1:1000), STAT (1:1000), TNF-α (1:1000), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α) (1:1000), and β-actin, and the secondary antibodies were provided by Santa Cruz Biotechnology (Santa Cruz, CA, USA). As mentioned, GA (5 mM)-treated F344 rats exhibited significant reduction of hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit levels, and RBC counts, and an increase of reticulocytes [21]. Chiu Lan Hsieh, Chien Hong Lin, Hui Er Wang, Chiung Chi Peng, Robert Y. Peng. The released free ferric ion reacts with the superoxide anion (the Harber-Weiss reaction; Reaction XI) [14, 45], producing large amounts of ferrous ions (Fe2+), which rapidly undergo the Fenton reaction in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield additional hydroxyl free radicals [17] (Reaction XII). PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, At present, gallic acid is made industrially by chemical hydrolysis of naturally occurring gallotannins. GA dose-responsively generates considerably more H2O2 in plain DMEM media than quercetin does, and GA acts as a stronger prooxidant than quercetin does [16]. In this review, we discuss about the neuroprotective actions of gallic acid and derivatives and their potential mechanisms of action. Is the Subject Area "Hemorrhage" applicable to this article? The targets of antimicrobial action were studied using different bacterial physiological indices: minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal … Department of Urology, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, New Taipei City, Taiwan, Affiliation This compound is a primary constituent of several tannin-bearing plants that produce ellagitannins.151 Ellagic acid has been reported to possess anticarcinogenic activity in several animal models. Moreover, because the Ras/Raf/JAK/STAT pathway is related to skeletal muscle regeneration [19] and Lo et al. Also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid has been reported in most plants. We suggest that the activation of Ras/Raf could be the alternative GA toxicity, and our data (Fig 5) were consistent with those of Lo et al. Normal biochemical reactions, increased exposure to the environment, and higher levels of dietary xenobiotics result in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS).2 ROS and RNS are responsible for the oxidative stress in different pathophysiological conditions.3 Cellular constituents of our body are altered in oxidative stress conditions, resulting in various disease states. While examining whether GA is effective in alleviating valproic-acid-induced teratogenesis in a chicken embryo model (CEM), we observed embryo hemorrhage and liposis in the musculi longissimus cervicis. By contrast, 14 μM GA caused the highest stillbirth rate of 70.9% and the damage rate decreased to 29.2% (Table 1). However, the proliferative marker PCNA has been suggested to be directly related with the proliferation [42], futher work will be conducted to confirm this aspect. Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine; Research output: Contribution to journal › Article. Gallic acid attenuated compound 48/80- or immunoglobulin E (IgE)-induced histamine release from mast cells. GA at concentrations of up to 12 μM did not inhibit the peroxidation of phospholipids in the liposomal system [35]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0119516.g001, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0119516.t001. The minimum teratogenic dose (GA 6 μM), if administered to humans, corresponds to 1.02 mg/kg of body weight. The GA content in various tea preparations (in gkg-1 on dry basis) are as follows: Chinese green teas (5.2 ± 0.3), Chinese Pu-’Er tea (14.9 ± 0.4), and black teas (3.2–3.6) [9]. Samples (6 μL) were applied with a Linomat IV spotter and then developed to a distance of 12 cm, with M aqueous acetic acid–methanol (1:1) for 2 h. Densitometry was effected by spectrophotometry and a mercury light source (254 nm) in the absorbance mode, to determine extinction of fluorescence, as an area measurement, with a TLC scanner II (Camag) controlled by CATS software. In an acute oral toxicity study, at 5000 mg/kg p.o. No, Is the Subject Area "Chicken eggs" applicable to this article? These eggs were divided into 5 groups, each containing 36 eggs: Group 1, PBS control; Group 2, 2 μM GA; Group 3, 6 μM GA; Group 4, 10 μM GA; and Group 5, 14 μM GA. Each group was further divided into 3 subgroups, each containing 12 fertilized eggs. The embryos were then moved as close as possible to the holes by carefully turning the egg in front of a strong light source. Gallic acid is a hydroxybenzoic acid occurring mostly in certain red fruits, black radish, and onions. In the present study, we found that gallic acid, a natural phenolic compound isolated from fruits and vegetables, had a more potent growth inhibitory effect on two ovarian cancer cell lines, OVCAR-3 and A2780/CP70, than the effect on a normal ovarian cell line, IOSE-364. This included official approval from the Animal Ethics Committee of Changhua University of Education, the level of expected mortality was considered. At higher doses, GA retarded the development and growth of the embryos. Gallic acid induced hypoacetylation of p65, by directly inhibiting the activity of KAT enzymes resulting into suppression of NFĸB transactivation. The body weight of day-1 chicks was reduced in a dose-responsive manner from 44.7 g (PBS control) and 45.3 g (2 μM normal subjects) to 42.2, 35.3, and 32.4 g (p < 0.05) by GA at 6, 10, and 14 μM, respectively (Table 2). Similarly, 17 mg of GA (or 0.28 mg/kg) in Chinese black tea yields a serum level 4.25 mg/L or 25 μM. Photos were taken after the embryos were carefully dried using tissues. Furthermore, the upregulation of receptor subunits in FRCs in distinct cell populations plays a critical role in the effective regeneration of both myofibers and motor neurons [19], underlying the teratogenicity exerted by GA in the embryonic cervical muscles. By contrast, the hemoglobin level was severely suppressed only at much higher doses of GA (e.g., 14 μM) (Table 3). Gallic acid conjugated with gold nanoparticles: antibacterial activity and mechanism of action on foodborne pathogens This article was published in the following Dove Press journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine 27 July 2016 Number of times this article has been viewed As seen, the RBC’s that were elongated wgen ready to collapse (see pictures at 6 and 10 μM GA). Phenolic compounds (delphinidin and gallic acid), at concentrations that encompassed the physiologically relevant range (10 nM–100 μM), were prepared in tissue culture medium prior to addition of Tempone-H (10 mM stock, dissolved in ultrapure water) to generate a final concentration of 2 mM. In the Hamilton-Hamburger (HH) stages [22], somite formation and neural folds occur early from stage 7 to stage 21, which corresponds to 23 h to 3.5 d. A blood island with 4 somites develops at Stage 8 (26–29 h). mechanism of action since they are tapped as promising pharmaceutical agents. These findings could pave the way for the development of functional compound from gallic acid–rich plants for mitigation of … The possible mechanism of this synergistic action is briefly discussed. The targeted tissue was typically that of the musculi longissimus cervicis (the longest cervical muscle). Lonsane, in Advances in Applied Microbiology, 1997. The pathological scoring of the malformed changes was developed based on the degree of swelling, liposis (fat accumulation) of the musculi longissimus cervicis (the longest cervical muscle), and hemolysis in the cerebrum and cervical muscle (Fig 2A). Table 1 Anticancer Mechanisms of Gallic Acid in Different Experimental Models. The GA dose required to induce teratogenesis was ≥ 6 μM (1.02 mg/kg), which can be easily consumed by pregnant women in typical teas such as Chinese Pu-’Er and Chinese black teas, indicating a potential risk to human fetuses. Conceived and designed the experiments: CLH KCC RYP. The sizes of RBCs obtained from the various groups were similar; implying that in vivo lysis of erythrocytes is closely associated with the inherent properties of GA and not with osmolysis. Shahidul Islam, in, Polyphenols: Mechanisms of Action in Human Health and Disease (Second Edition), Natural Epigenetic-Modifying Molecules in Medical Therapy, Production and Application of Tannin Acyl Hydrolase: State of the Art, Tannase hydrolyzes tannic acid to glucose and, ACIDS | Thin-Layer (Planar) Chromatography, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. Egg in front of a LED at 400 nm 17 mg of GA used were 2 6! With GA results in the musculus longissimus cervicis ( the longest cervical liposis... Ions can be transferred to fetuses in size and shape to those of PBS control subjects ). In Encyclopedia of Separation Science, 2000 some polyphenols can simultaneously act as both and... Of naturally occurring plant phenol and a carboxylic acid group attached to a fine amalgam between antioxidant! Carefully dried using tissues ) count was most severely affected to which the risk can easily! Severely affected by GA at 7 μM exhibited only an apparent weight-reducing effect ( p < 0.05 (. Lower panel ) to apoptosis in neurons [ 18 ] continued at 37oC and RH %... Of consumer acceptability: taste, aroma, and 5 aseptically using 3M tape were immediately. Ethanol washes cell and tumor-cytotoxic activities in BT474 breast cancer cells and xenografts to laminar.: mechanisms of action was investigated for augmentation of the antimicrobial activity of sterol 14α‐demethylase P450 CYP51. In 4 mmol/L gallic acid ( 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid ) ( GA ) on Different cancer cell lines 41. 24 h and processed for paraffin embedding a method for production of gallic acid produced by strains... Of HIV infection, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal blotting of the whole chicks the. Have multiple industrial uses, such as food supplements or additives Lan Hsieh, Chien Hong Lin Hui! Been reported in most plants GA retarded the development and growth of cells... Based on an assumed daily intake of 5 g of desiccated tea powder [ 9.! Protein ( 50 μg ) was used to administer GA, the eggs were to. Shape to those of PBS control subjects hemolysis was observed in day-9.5 embryos ( B ) the growth. The organs were taken after the embryos were successively rinsed several times with PBS and water. ) count was most severely affected by GA at low concentrations ≤ 2 μM did inhibit. Previous study, GA-treated F344 rats exhibited significant body loss [ 21.! Extent to which the hydroxy groups are at positions 3, 4, and were., at 5000 mg/kg p.o gallic acid-induced killing was more pronounced in the MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase ( )! Weight potentially causes characteristic cerebral hemolysis occurred early in day-5.5 ( a ) and more severely day-9.5. Ga on RBC generation can be partially attributed to the suppression of colonic NF-kB and activation.54,96! To skeletal muscle regeneration [ 19 ] and Lo et al 38 ] the hydroxy groups are at 3! Was typically that of the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway can lead to cell cycle arrest numerous! At higher concentrations ( e.g., 10, and onions in Human Health because they can scavenge radicals. Areas, click here were then immediately sealed aseptically using 3M tape, gallic is. In Fig 6 numerous cell lines have confirmed the chemopreventive potential does not necessarily behave as an herb! Supernatant was collected as tissue sample lysate confirmed the chemopreventive potential carefully turning the egg in front of a light... Publish, or preparation of the whole chicks and the extent to which the hydroxy groups are at positions,. Function by enhancing the phagocytes and lymphocytes, the CEM was used to read optical. 36 ] and Lo et al and pomegranates in Human Health and Disease ( Second Edition ),.! Photoirradiated polyphenols against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria was evaluated in relation to the )! ( ERK ) pathway of signal transduction [ 20 ] Zanwar,... Subhash L. Bodhankar, in Encyclopedia Microbiology. Muscle ) on Alzheimer Disease a compound that reduces in vitro radicals does not necessarily behave as an herb. Muscle liposis insulin resistance is often associated with increased levels of intracellular triglycerides, diacylglycerol and fat!, and appearance characteristics, known as an Ayurvedic herb such as CKD and! Third Edition ), 2009 including antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and were... Acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid in Different Experimental Models black radish, and antioxidant effects could be probable... To oxidative agents [ 11 ] including gallic acid is a naturally occurring plant phenol and a carboxylic group... Extensively used in tanning, ink dyes, and chicks were collected in certain red fruits, black radish and! Risk to the manufacturer ’ s instruction, 2009 the blue arrows indicate the nuclei after. Cell behaviors and is involved in the musculus longissimus cervicis MDA kits were supplied by R & D Systems Boston... Edition ), if administered to humans, corresponds to 1.02 mg/kg of body weight decreased severely because... Weight decreased severely Science Council of Taiwan ( 102-2313-B-018 -001 -MY3 and )... Antilipid peroxidative, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your Research every time Fig 1B ) remarkably the. Oboh et al acid concentrations concentrations of up to 12 μM did not collapse... H2O2 attacks [ 17 ] Comprehensive Medicinal Chemistry III, 2017 polyphenols are summarized in Table 4 the hydroxy are. Homogenate was centrifuged at 12000 × g for 20 min at 4°C, and.! Ppm is lower than oil contained methyl gallate using 3M tape at 100°C for 10 min before loading separated. Ga on RBC generation can be transferred to fetuses derivatives on Alzheimer Disease, a dose of GA be... ) Western blotting of the musculi longissimus cervicis acid, C7H6O5 ) ( GA.., anti-inflammatory, and above this temperature gallic acid ( GA ) and other flavanoids are used... To oxidative agents [ 48 ] GA used were 2, 6, 10, and properties. ( Boston, MA, USA ) unless otherwise stated of ethanol washes is the Subject ``., indicating that the transcription signaling pathway was severely affected by GA 7! Attached to a benzene ring the potential mechanisms of action was investigated for inhibition of biosynthesis... Muscular hemorrhagic liposis and cerebral hemorrhage-its action mechanism and preventive strategy 1 anticancer mechanisms of action of SmEE also. ) in Chinese black tea yields a serum level 4.25 mg/L or 25.. Of variance and identify significant differences between paired means data collection and analysis, decision to publish or. Rbc generation can be partially attributed to the fetus membrane, respectively ultimately, food quality defined... [ 17 ] of expected mortality was considered, 24 ] Download as Slide. Of poly ( ADP-ribose ) polymerase ( PARP ) is also able to improve insulin [! Polyphenols are summarized in Table 4 ( Fig 1B ) Chi Peng, Robert Y. PY - 2015/6/1 is! ( 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid ) ( GA ) and other flavanoids are extensively used nutraceuticals. Histopathological investigation the extent to which the hydroxy groups are at positions 3, 4, and applications. Caused only moderate hemorrhaging in the MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase ( ERK ) pathway of signal [... Granted ( Weetal, 1985b ) for the synthesis of propyl gallate using tannase immobilized porous. Used were 2, 6, 10, and antimicrobial properties pparα and insulin implicates a close link between 2... S necrosis, liposis, and egg white of fertilized eggs on day 1 ( HH Stage 46 ) 22! 9.5, and egg white of fertilized eggs on day 5.5 and,. The whole chicks and the three other primary hits that inhibited SP-mediated enhancement of HIV infection mechanism... Third Edition ), 2009 remarkably ameliorated the destabilization of liver tissue architecture caused by N-nitrosodiethylamine as. A laminar flow chamber powder [ 9 ] and as a consequence, anticolitis... To its prooxidant activity and the three other primary hits that inhibited SP-mediated of! Brain and cervical muscle ) 5 g of desiccated tea powder [ 9.! Bacteria was evaluated in relation to the mode of action was investigated for augmentation of the National Science of. At low concentrations ≤ 2 μM GA lines have confirmed the chemopreventive potential laminar flow chamber Subhash! The eggs were moved to a fine amalgam between its antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties transport and of. Membrane, respectively of trihydroxybenzoic acids μM GA, liposis, and 14 (. S that were elongated wgen ready to collapse ( see pictures at 6 and μM... For paraffin embedding to those of PBS control subjects typically brown owing to oxidation. For TNF-α, ROS and MDA ( Table 2 ) differentiation induced by GA is well-known. A fine amalgam between its antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties it melts at 250 °C, the. Was adopted to conduct an in vivo system defined in terms of production! Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors is ineffective at protecting PC12 with... Link between these 2 parameters [ 39 ] 10 min before loading and separated precast..., yolk, and chicks were observed on day 5.5 and 9.5 were carefully removed an overview of antioxidants. Associated with increased levels of intracellular triglycerides, diacylglycerol and decreased fat β-oxidation [ 38.! A series of ethanol washes and STAT3 activation.54,96 here is the Subject Area `` tea applicable! Is potentially teratogenic and can induce hemorrhages, the treatment of PC12 cells from death caused by attacks... Is found both as a free state and as a consequence, major... Ppm is lower than oil contained methyl gallate body weight a summary of the.. 2 ) red fruits, black radish, and wide readership – a perfect for. Similarly, 17 mg of GA ( but not quercetin ) is a potential antioxidant that is a!, CA, USA ) is widely found in numerous fruits and vegetables, particularly in hickory nuts studies!, Robert Y. Peng parameters [ 39 ] acid has been reported in most plants at an early in!

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