gallic acid mechanism of action
Similar trend was found for TNF-α, ROS and MDA (Table 2). For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Elaine Cruz Rosas, ... Maria das Graças Henriques, in Bioactive Food as Dietary Interventions for Arthritis and Related Inflammatory Diseases (Second Edition), 2019. The day-1 (HH Stage 46) chicks were collected. Gallic Acid as Neuroprotective Agent. However, gallic acid indicated no linear dependence on both [InH] −1 and [InH] −0.5, which showed that the radicals of gallic acid were included in more than one reaction of chain propagation (Figure 6b). Rabbit antibodies to cervical muscle tissue Ras (1:1000), Raf (1:1000), GRB2 (1:1000), LIFR (1:1000), gp130 (1:1000), STAT (1:1000), TNF-α (1:1000), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α) (1:1000), and β-actin, and the secondary antibodies were provided by Santa Cruz Biotechnology (Santa Cruz, CA, USA). As mentioned, GA (5 mM)-treated F344 rats exhibited significant reduction of hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit levels, and RBC counts, and an increase of reticulocytes . Chiu Lan Hsieh, Chien Hong Lin, Hui Er Wang, Chiung Chi Peng, Robert Y. Peng. The released free ferric ion reacts with the superoxide anion (the Harber-Weiss reaction; Reaction XI) [14, 45], producing large amounts of ferrous ions (Fe2+), which rapidly undergo the Fenton reaction in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield additional hydroxyl free radicals  (Reaction XII). PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, At present, gallic acid is made industrially by chemical hydrolysis of naturally occurring gallotannins. GA dose-responsively generates considerably more H2O2 in plain DMEM media than quercetin does, and GA acts as a stronger prooxidant than quercetin does . In this review, we discuss about the neuroprotective actions of gallic acid and derivatives and their potential mechanisms of action. Is the Subject Area "Hemorrhage" applicable to this article? The targets of antimicrobial action were studied using different bacterial physiological indices: minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal … Department of Urology, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, New Taipei City, Taiwan, Affiliation This compound is a primary constituent of several tannin-bearing plants that produce ellagitannins.151 Ellagic acid has been reported to possess anticarcinogenic activity in several animal models. Moreover, because the Ras/Raf/JAK/STAT pathway is related to skeletal muscle regeneration  and Lo et al. Also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid has been reported in most plants. We suggest that the activation of Ras/Raf could be the alternative GA toxicity, and our data (Fig 5) were consistent with those of Lo et al. Normal biochemical reactions, increased exposure to the environment, and higher levels of dietary xenobiotics result in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS).2 ROS and RNS are responsible for the oxidative stress in different pathophysiological conditions.3 Cellular constituents of our body are altered in oxidative stress conditions, resulting in various disease states. While examining whether GA is effective in alleviating valproic-acid-induced teratogenesis in a chicken embryo model (CEM), we observed embryo hemorrhage and liposis in the musculi longissimus cervicis. By contrast, 14 μM GA caused the highest stillbirth rate of 70.9% and the damage rate decreased to 29.2% (Table 1). However, the proliferative marker PCNA has been suggested to be directly related with the proliferation , futher work will be conducted to confirm this aspect. Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine; Research output: Contribution to journal › Article. Gallic acid attenuated compound 48/80- or immunoglobulin E (IgE)-induced histamine release from mast cells. GA at concentrations of up to 12 μM did not inhibit the peroxidation of phospholipids in the liposomal system . https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0119516.g001, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0119516.t001. The minimum teratogenic dose (GA 6 μM), if administered to humans, corresponds to 1.02 mg/kg of body weight. The GA content in various tea preparations (in gkg-1 on dry basis) are as follows: Chinese green teas (5.2 ± 0.3), Chinese Pu-’Er tea (14.9 ± 0.4), and black teas (3.2–3.6) . Samples (6 μL) were applied with a Linomat IV spotter and then developed to a distance of 12 cm, with M aqueous acetic acid–methanol (1:1) for 2 h. Densitometry was effected by spectrophotometry and a mercury light source (254 nm) in the absorbance mode, to determine extinction of fluorescence, as an area measurement, with a TLC scanner II (Camag) controlled by CATS software. In an acute oral toxicity study, at 5000 mg/kg p.o. No, Is the Subject Area "Chicken eggs" applicable to this article? These eggs were divided into 5 groups, each containing 36 eggs: Group 1, PBS control; Group 2, 2 μM GA; Group 3, 6 μM GA; Group 4, 10 μM GA; and Group 5, 14 μM GA. Each group was further divided into 3 subgroups, each containing 12 fertilized eggs. The embryos were then moved as close as possible to the holes by carefully turning the egg in front of a strong light source. Gallic acid is a hydroxybenzoic acid occurring mostly in certain red fruits, black radish, and onions. In the present study, we found that gallic acid, a natural phenolic compound isolated from fruits and vegetables, had a more potent growth inhibitory effect on two ovarian cancer cell lines, OVCAR-3 and A2780/CP70, than the effect on a normal ovarian cell line, IOSE-364. This included official approval from the Animal Ethics Committee of Changhua University of Education, the level of expected mortality was considered. At higher doses, GA retarded the development and growth of the embryos. Gallic acid induced hypoacetylation of p65, by directly inhibiting the activity of KAT enzymes resulting into suppression of NFĸB transactivation. The body weight of day-1 chicks was reduced in a dose-responsive manner from 44.7 g (PBS control) and 45.3 g (2 μM normal subjects) to 42.2, 35.3, and 32.4 g (p < 0.05) by GA at 6, 10, and 14 μM, respectively (Table 2). Similarly, 17 mg of GA (or 0.28 mg/kg) in Chinese black tea yields a serum level 4.25 mg/L or 25 μM. Photos were taken after the embryos were carefully dried using tissues. Furthermore, the upregulation of receptor subunits in FRCs in distinct cell populations plays a critical role in the effective regeneration of both myofibers and motor neurons , underlying the teratogenicity exerted by GA in the embryonic cervical muscles. By contrast, the hemoglobin level was severely suppressed only at much higher doses of GA (e.g., 14 μM) (Table 3). Gallic acid conjugated with gold nanoparticles: antibacterial activity and mechanism of action on foodborne pathogens This article was published in the following Dove Press journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine 27 July 2016 Number of times this article has been viewed As seen, the RBC’s that were elongated wgen ready to collapse (see pictures at 6 and 10 μM GA). Phenolic compounds (delphinidin and gallic acid), at concentrations that encompassed the physiologically relevant range (10 nM–100 μM), were prepared in tissue culture medium prior to addition of Tempone-H (10 mM stock, dissolved in ultrapure water) to generate a final concentration of 2 mM. In the Hamilton-Hamburger (HH) stages , somite formation and neural folds occur early from stage 7 to stage 21, which corresponds to 23 h to 3.5 d. A blood island with 4 somites develops at Stage 8 (26–29 h). mechanism of action since they are tapped as promising pharmaceutical agents. These findings could pave the way for the development of functional compound from gallic acid–rich plants for mitigation of … The possible mechanism of this synergistic action is briefly discussed. The targeted tissue was typically that of the musculi longissimus cervicis (the longest cervical muscle). Lonsane, in Advances in Applied Microbiology, 1997. The pathological scoring of the malformed changes was developed based on the degree of swelling, liposis (fat accumulation) of the musculi longissimus cervicis (the longest cervical muscle), and hemolysis in the cerebrum and cervical muscle (Fig 2A). Table 1 Anticancer Mechanisms of Gallic Acid in Different Experimental Models. The GA dose required to induce teratogenesis was ≥ 6 μM (1.02 mg/kg), which can be easily consumed by pregnant women in typical teas such as Chinese Pu-’Er and Chinese black teas, indicating a potential risk to human fetuses. Conceived and designed the experiments: CLH KCC RYP. The sizes of RBCs obtained from the various groups were similar; implying that in vivo lysis of erythrocytes is closely associated with the inherent properties of GA and not with osmolysis. Shahidul Islam, in, Polyphenols: Mechanisms of Action in Human Health and Disease (Second Edition), Natural Epigenetic-Modifying Molecules in Medical Therapy, Production and Application of Tannin Acyl Hydrolase: State of the Art, Tannase hydrolyzes tannic acid to glucose and, ACIDS | Thin-Layer (Planar) Chromatography, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. Egg in front of a LED at 400 nm 17 mg of GA used were 2 6! With GA results in the musculus longissimus cervicis ( the longest cervical liposis... Ions can be transferred to fetuses in size and shape to those of PBS control subjects ). In Encyclopedia of Separation Science, 2000 some polyphenols can simultaneously act as both and... Of naturally occurring plant phenol and a carboxylic acid group attached to a fine amalgam between antioxidant! Carefully dried using tissues ) count was most severely affected to which the risk can easily! 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