countries involved in vietnam war
The U.S involvement in Vietnam had started as early as 1950 when Harry Truman sent military advisors to aid the French. Also known as the Second Indochina War or simply the American War to the Vietnamese, the epic struggle claimed the lives of more than 2 million people, including some 60,000 U.S. personnel and more than a million civilians. Yet, no matter what they tried, the Americans never succeeded in seriously disrupting North Vietnamese supply lines, nor did they prevent the fall of Laos to the communists in 1975. Here, retired Colonel William C Haponski, co-author of ‘Autopsy of an Unwinnable War: Vietnam’, explains that the British were in fact one of five main players in early post-World War 2 Vietnam. After World War II, France reoccupied Vietnam as part of its attempt to reclaim its prewar empire. In 1971, the Pentagon Papers were leaked, revealing confidential information about the war. By 1972, the idea that Vietnam posed a threat to Cold War America was so discredited, it sometimes sounded as if America’s only remaining war aim was to … Similar to Beijing, Moscow who feared U.S. direct intervention in Vietnam urged Ho Chi Minh to accept the temporary division of Vietnam of the 1954 Geneva Accords and focus on building the country’s military and economy instead. Republic of Vietnam (1950 "State of Vietnam, AKA South Vietnam) “They were determined to go on holding it, both as a matter of national pride and because if they let one colony go loose, then the others might get ideas.”. By the time American forces finally withdrew in 1973, about 2.7 million U.S. soldiers had served in Vietnam, more than 58,000 had died, and the nation had racked up a staggering bill of at least $111 billion (plus billions more in non-military costs). The United States involvement in Vietnam began in 1950, during the French Indochina War. How eight countries got bogged down in the Vietnam War's Cold War proxy battle. The escalation of US involvement in Vietnam increased Soviet interest. Vietnam War. France had been a long-time occupier of Vietnam before 1954. North Vietnam was backed by communist forces … South Korea was the main U.S. and South Vietnamese partner, providing over 300,000 troops and suffering some 5,000 deaths. Despite speculation that the victorious North Vietnamese would, in President Nixon's words, "massacre the civilians there [South Vietnam] by the millions," there is a widespread consensus that no mass executions took place. At first, the U.S. operated behind the scenes, but after 1964, sent combat troops and became more deeply mired in the war.Following France’s defeat in the First Indochina War, an international agreement divided Vietnam in two. The United States got involved to prevent South Vietnam from falling into communist hands. Ho led the North, whereas the U.S.-backed Ngo Dinh Diem took charge of the South. By 1975, when North Vietnamese troops took Saigon and reunified the nation under communist rule, an estimated 1 million to 3 million Vietnamese had perished, many of them civilians. Despite the tensions, both Beijing and Moscow shared the same view on the conflict in Vietnam. Yet the Vietnamese didn’t do all the fighting. Nonetheless, “if there had been no Chinese or Soviet support, the North Vietnamese could not have won,” he says, pointing out that the U.S. military budget was roughly 30 times greater than the entire gross national product of North Vietnam. Besides, China also began to fund, arm and train the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia as a counterbalance to the Vietnamese communists. Hanoi is the capital of Vietnam that is located in the north of the country. Although Moscow belatedly recognized Ho’s government in January 1950, they rejected his request to back North Vietnamese movement for independence against the French. Cambodia, while officially neutral, tolerated communist intrusions—and was bombed by the United States for those intrusions. Germany subsequently declared war following Russian cooperation with Serbia. June 7, 2016. Prince Norodom Sihanouk “basically felt that he was surrounded by dangerous enemies, and he had to make nice with some of them,” Moise says, adding that “he could not afford to offend” the North Vietnamese despite being “anti-communist in Cambodian politics.”. READ MORE: Why Were Vietnam War Vets Treated Poorly When They Returned? Sino-Soviet relations went from bad to worse after the Soviets invaded Czechoslovakia in August 1968 and reached its nadir with an armed conflict at Sino-Soviet border in March 1969. While nearly 60,000 Americans lost their lives in the … Prior to that time, the number of American newsmen in Indochina had been small—fewer than two dozen even as late as 1964. North Vietnam immediately broke the accord, however, moving troops and supplies through Laos rather than traversing the heavily guarded demilitarized zone that separated it from South Vietnam. The War was mainly fought in South Vietnam, North Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos. They were seeking to strengthen their ties with France and help stop the spread of communism. While South Korea sent a total of 313,000 soldiers between 1965 and 1973 to South Vietnam, North Korea only sent in a fighter squadron to North Vietnam in early 1967 to back up their air defenses in the city of Hanoi. Determined to prevent South Vietnam from falling into communist hands, the United States propped up Diem with billions of dollars in aid, as well as increasing numbers of military advisers. Vietnam became a subject of large-scale news coverage in the United States only after substantial numbers of U.S. combat troops had been committed to the war in the spring of 1965. However, they were also being paid off by the United States in the form of economic and military assistance. List of wars involving Vietnam. The Vietnam War was ostensibly a civil war between the communist North and pro-Western South. Nixon then sent troops across the border in 1970, taking advantage of a coup that ousted Sihanouk in favor of a pro-American general. However, it’s worth noticing that after China’s ally Khmer Rouge conducted some savage raids along the border between Vietnam and Cambodia during 1975–1978 and Vietnam responded with an invasion that overthrew them, China decided to launch a brief, punitive border invasion of Vietnam in 1979 sometimes known as the Third Indochina War to “teach them a lesson”. Sovfoto/Universal Images Group/Getty Images. At the same time, advances in video and audio recording enabled both easier… Winston Churchill, and later Harold Wilson, may be thought of as having kept Britain out of Vietnam, but in actual fact, that was only once it had begun to escalate.. North Vietnam was backed … At first, the U.S. operated behind the scenes, but after 1964, sent combat troops and became more deeply mired in the war. America and South Korea were the biggest supporters of Saigon. “The French had controlled Vietnam for a couple of generations,” explains Ed Moise, a professor of history at Clemson University and author of Tonkin Gulf and the Escalation of the Vietnam War. Things changed when Khrushchev was out of power and replaced by Leonid Brezhnev who favored more direct involvement to aid North Vietnam. South Vietnam was backed by anti-communist countries and members of the South East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) which included the United States, South Korea, Australia, the Philippines, New Zealand, Thailand, Khmer Republic (later overthrown by Khmer Rouge), Kingdom of Laos and Republic of China (Taiwan). Vietnam - Vietnam - The two Vietnams (1954–65): The agreements concluded in Geneva between April and July 1954 (collectively called the Geneva Accords) were signed by French and Viet Minh representatives and provided for a cease-fire and temporary division of the country into two military zones at latitude 17 °N (popularly called the 17th parallel). However, the US started direct military action in Vietnam in 1964 until 1973. Vietnam War (1954–75), conflict that pitted the communist government of North Vietnam and its allies in South Vietnam, the Viet Cong, against South Vietnam and its principal ally, the United States. The American people did not feel like their government was being held accountable. The French and American experiences in Vietnam differed in many respects. As the original communist state, the Soviet Union aided North Vietnam, with increasing support in the late 1960s. Causes of the Vietnam war. Following the victory over the south in 1975, the unified Vietnam waged a four year war against Cambodia. And so you can imagine, during World War II, France was quickly overrun by the Germans. Jennifer Manzo Both Moscow and Beijing hoped to expand communism into Asia. It was fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. In 1966, the reclusive regime dispatched two squadrons of MiG-17s and a squadron of MiG-21s — 30 planes in all. China continued to provide military aid and support to North Vietnam years after the first Indochina war. Unsurprisingly, the North Vietnamese likewise moved troops and supplies through neighboring Cambodia, which, though officially neutral, tolerated the communist intrusions. All of these countries were on the anti-communist force. The South was supported by anti-communist countries, primarily the United States. Brutal tactics were the norm during the Vietnam War, and no one suffered more than the Vietnamese themselves, both in the North and the South. North Vietnam was backed by the communist allies which included People’s Republic of China, Soviet Union, Pathet Lao (Laotian Communist insurgents), Khmer Rouge (Cambodian Communist insurgents) and North Korea. The main countries involved in the Vietnam War were North and South Vietnam. The Chinese interpreted American “aggression” against North Vietnam after the Gulf of Tonkin incident as their own and threatened to militarily intervene in North Vietnam if American forces crossed the DMZ. In the same year, they also sent weapons and military advisors to assist the viet Minh in their war against the French. HISTORY reviews and updates its content regularly to ensure it is complete and accurate. You can see Cambodia here, Vietnam along the coast, and then, Laos, right over here. https://www.history.com/topics/vietnam-war/vietnam-war-history There were 6 Free World nations and 2 communist allies that officially sent men and material support to South and North Vietnam respectively. In the 1954 Geneva Accords, following the Soviet Union, Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai urged the Viet Minh to accept a temporary partition of Vietnam at the 17th parallel. Poster entitled "Support Vietnam People," circa 1969, showing China's support of the Communist cause in Vietnam. Soviet Union and china. Not wanting to be seen as going it alone, the Johnson administration pressured other countries to join in the Vietnam War, much as George W. Bush would later form a “coalition of the willing” to fight in the Iraq War. A Cold War-era billboard in Moscow showing bombs raining down on Uncle Sam reading, 'Aggressors out of Vietnam!' The Soviets wanted to “make life difficult for the United States,” McAllister says, “but they didn’t want to do it in a way that got them in a conflict with the United States.”, Soviet involvement in the war increased in the late 1960s, just as China’s influence was lessening. North Korea had provided North Vietnam both political and military support including sending military advisers in the early stage of the Vietnam War due to the close Ideology between Hanoi and Pyongyang. After a while, “no one thinks they’re going to win,” says James McAllister, a political science professor at Williams College, “but they’re damn sure a loss is not going to take place under their watch.”, READ MORE: How the Vietnam War Ratcheted Up Under 5 US Presidents. USA. All told, the Chinese claimed to have spent over $20 billion in support of North Vietnam and deployed 320,000 military personnel, more than 4,000 of whom died. During the Second World War, Japan invaded the country. The Philippines, Taiwan and Spain likewise aided the U.S. war effort, whereas on the communist side North Korea and Cuba purportedly sent token support. Newly communist China had supported Ho Chi Minh during the war with the French, and continued to do so during the war with the U.S. by providing weapons, expertise and manpower. What Countries Involved in the Vietnam War? Yet, as Moise points out, they both learned one important lesson: “It’s dangerous to get in a fight when the other side cares about winning more than you do.”. The Soviets even allegedly shot down some U.S. planes. Some countries such as Cuba and Taiwan provided secret supports to their respective allies while others such as Czechoslovakia, East and West Germany although did not officially participate offered military advisors, engineers and doctors in their allies’ forces. Oct. 15, 1969: The first Moratorium to End the War in Vietnam, a series of … The significant impact of the war was that it resulted in the death of a large number of people. Here, retired Colonel William C Haponski, co-author of ‘Autopsy of an Unwinnable War: Vietnam’, explains that the British were in fact one of five main players in early post-World War 2 Vietnam. All rights reserved. China invaded Vietnam in 1979 by way of retaliation. © 2012-2021 The Vietnam War. South Korea was the main U.S. and South Vietnamese partner, contributing more than 300,000 troops to the war. ... What four presidents were involved in the war. Meanwhile, President Richard Nixon authorized a cross-border invasion of Laos in 1971. “The Koreans sent more troops and much more aggressive troops [than other U.S. allies],” Moise says. Nov. 5, 1968: Nixon is elected president, promising to end the war in Vietnam. As a result, the Vietnamese suffered the highest casualties in the conflict. Overall, though, they pumped only about 3,000 troops into the conflict, far fewer than the Chinese. Eventually, the conflict would grow to a global scale, and the Central Powers of Austria-Hungary, Germany, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire would fight against Great Britain, the United States, France, Russia, Italy, Japan and Romania (the Allied Powers). The war resulted in the victory of North Vietnam (the communists) over the South Vietnam which means U.S. Had to accept the defeat. China and the Soviet Union didn’t have to do as much as the Americans, Moise explains, because they were buttressing the stronger side. 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