vaporizer in anesthesia machine

Higher the fresh gas flow in pipe [2], higher will be the pressure rise in pipe [2] since more flow has to occur through the same fixed resistance [10]. If a vaporizer is inadvertently tipped, it should be purged with high fresh gas flow from the machine flowmeters, with the vaporizer concentration dial turned to the highest setting, until no trace of the agent is detectable. Contemporary anesthesia vaporizers are concentration calibrated, and most are of the variable bypass design. as vaporisation happens, the temperature of the liquid falls causing less vaporisation. The Aladin system can accurately deliver desflurane and the other less volatile potent anesthetic agents. The sevoflurane vapor exerts pressure and causes an equivalent decrease in the height of the mercury column. Calibration of Vaporizers for Inhalational Anesthesia in Animals . Many anesthetic machines have more than one vaporiser attached so that one has a choice of inhalational agents to use. Because enflurane and sevoflurane have similar vapor pressures at 20° C (175 mm Hg and 160 mm Hg, respectively), similar flow settings could be used to create approximately the same agent concentrations with a measured flow system. At the exit end of the vaporiser, the by pass gas (vaporless) meets the chamber gas (fully saturated with vapor) and the two mix. This would be really tedious in our modern times. I.e. This causes the vapor pressure of the anesthetic to decrease. The SVP exerted by the vapor phase of a potent inhaled volatile agent is a physical property of that agent and depends only on the agent and the ambient temperature. With both types of vaporizing systems, there must be an efficient method to create a saturated vapor in the vaporizing chamber. Anesthesiologists should learn to think of MAC in terms of partial pressure rather than in terms of volumes percent because the partial pressure (tension) of the anesthetic in the central nervous system is responsible for the depth of anesthesia. Some vaporisers use the expansion or contraction property of a special liquid inside bellows (shown in green) to control the valve. Thus if 100 mL/min of carrier gas flows through a vaporizing chamber containing sevoflurane, the carrier gas represents 79% (100% − 21%) of the atmosphere and the remaining 21% is sevoflurane vapor. When placed in a closed container at normal atmospheric pressure and room temperature (given above), a potent inhaled anesthetic is in liquid form. There are many different safety mechanisms available which prevents more than one vaporiser to be used simultaneously. Finally, when you set the dial to zero to make vaporiser deliver no anaesthetic vapor, the splitting valve sends all the fresh gas via the by pass pathway and nothing through the vaporising chamber. Similarly, when you dial a low anaesthetic concentration requirement, the splitting valve sends less fresh gas via the vaporising chamber. The previously compressed gases now suddenly expands in all directions. Certain vaporisers (e.g. i.e. Copper Kettle vaporizing system (Puritan-Bennett; Covidien, Mansfield, MA). Such curves for some of the potent inhaled volatile anesthetic agents are shown in Figure 3-2 . Water boils at 100° C at 1 atm because at 100° C, the SVP of water is 760 mm Hg. Although measured flow vaporizers are not mentioned in the ASTM anesthesia machine standards published after 1988, it is helpful to review the function of one example, the Copper Kettle. 70. SVP, saturated vapor pressure. The increased flow through the fixed resistance [10] makes the pressure in pipe [2] to rise and this pressure is experienced by differential pressure transducer [11]. The heat required to vaporize an anesthetic agent is drawn from the remaining liquid agent and from the surroundings. This dramatically increases the surface area of anaesthetic agent exposed to the fresh gas entering the vaporisation chamber and thereby improves the efficiency of vaporisation. Desflurane has a very low boiling point (about 23 degrees Centigrade) and even at room temperature, has an high vapor pressure. This “back pressure” opposes the flow of the fresh gas in both the “by pass” channel and the vaporising chamber. Highland Medical offers state of the art anesthesia vaporizer service for a wide variety of vaporizer models. The disk is submerged into the anaesthetic agent and when fresh gas is sent through it, a large number of tiny bubbles form. In this example, atmospheric pressure is said to be equivalent to 760 mm Hg, because this is the height of the column of mercury in the barometer tube. In a variable bypass vaporizer, such as those made by GE Healthcare (Tec series) and the Dräger Vapor 2000 (Dräger Medical, Telford, PA), the total fresh gas flow from the anesthesia machine flowmeters passes to the vaporizer ( Fig. Vapor pressure Molecules escape from a volatile liquid to the vapor phase, creating a "saturated vapor pressure" at equilibrium. It behaves as both a variable bypass and measured flow vaporizer and tries to overcome some of the problems discussed within this article in the following ways. Established in 1988, Hospital Devices are considered amongst the distinguished manufacturers of a highest quality collection of Anaesthesia Vaporizer, Anaesthesia Workstation, Anaesthesia Ventilator, Anaesthesia Machine, etc.Furthermore, these products are available with us in temper proof packing materials. Modern vaporisers have removed the hard work. If selectatec system is not installed the sequence of vaporizer should be such that least potent agent must be placed upstream and most potent agent last in the sequence. Dividing the SVP by ambient pressure (760 mm Hg) gives the saturated vapor concentration (SVC) as a fraction (or percentage) of 1 atm. Now see what happens when the positive pressure is suddenly released (expiration). Anesthesia vaporizers are devices that facilitate the change of a liquid anesthetic into its vapor phase and add a controlled amount of this vapor to the flow of gases entering the patient’s breathing circuit. These changes in operating room temperature then change the temperature of vaporisers present in that room. There is only one stream for the fresh gas flow, and into this stream, the anaesthetic agent is directly injected. The temperature of a liquid is a measurement of how much ‘heat energy’ the liquid has. A basic anesthesia machine without ventilator start from Rs. Since the molecules move faster (more kinetic energy)  at higher temperature, more molecules can escape the surface and the saturated vapor pressure is correspondingly higher. The part of the fresh gas which enters the vapourising chamber flows over the wicks and baffles to maximise the surface area of vapourisation. This high resistance “resists” changes to flow caused by the intermittent ‘back pressure’ of positive pressure ventilation. So this means that at high flows, the basic vaporiser delivers less anaesthetic concentration than is set on the dial. These are commonly known as “bubble-through” vaporizers. So the Halothane filler key will not fit into the Isoflurane vaporiser filling hole. The number on the dial reflects the percentage that will be delivered. Apply with Selectatec. When this vaporiser is turned off, its pins retract and releases the pins on the adjacent vaporisers and thereby unlocks them. Flow-over vaporizers (Dräger Vapor 2000 series, GE Tec series) increase the surface area using wicks and baffles. This is an application of Dalton’s law, as discussed earlier. In this method, the fresh gas flow coming from the flow meters does not split into two streams. If all this is confusing you, just remember, on Earth, at room temperature, all the gaseous forms of common anesthetic  agents exist as vapours. Thermal capacity, defined as the product of specific heat and mass, represents the quantity of heat stored in the vaporizer body. If no such recommendation exists then the anesthetic agent delivery should be validated annually or any time the vaporizer has not been in service for more than one year. For the same amount of heat lost through vaporization, temperature changes are more gradual for materials with a high specific heat than for those with a low specific heat. An anesthetic vaporizer or anaesthetic vaporiser is a device generally attached to an anesthetic machine which delivers a given concentration of a volatile anesthetic agent. VAPOR PRESSURE (also called SATURATION VAPOR PRESSURE). This process reduces the ‘energy’ left in the remaining liquid. On the other hand, the fresh gas that is sent to the vaporising chamber becomes fully saturated with vapor. When the bag is squeezed (positive pressure ventilation), pressure is transmitted back into the vaporiser as shown below. Similarly, if you decreased the fresh gas flow, but didn’t decrease the injection rate, the emerging mixture again will be inaccurate. In other words, if 100 mL/min of carrier gas flows into the vaporizing chamber, the same 100 mL of carrier gas will emerge together with 27 mL/min of sevoflurane vapor. Due to capillary action, the anaesthetic agent rises into the wicks. Since the two flows are matched, the output concentration [9] does not change despite the increased fresh gas flow. Anesthesia Vaporizer is one unit, tochange liquid Anesthesia Agent into Anesthesia Vapor, then according to required volume, enter into breathing circuit. Tec 6 Plus . High flows of fresh gas going through the whole vaporiser can affect its output. The basic vaporiser discussed above has a very simple design. In this respect, copper comes close to the ideal; however, bronze and stainless steel have been used more recently in vaporizer construction. As discussed elsewhere, the standard vaporisers try to resist changes in temperature (e.g. (From Eisenkraft JB: Vaporizers and vaporization of volatile anesthetics. The amount of Desflurane concentration in the fresh gas is controlled by the dial setting set by you. This distinction become more apparent when hyperbaric and hypobaric conditions are considered. Note that, unlike other vaporisers, none of the fresh gas goes to the vaporising chamber [4]. Click on the thumbnail, or on the underlined text, to see the larger vaporizdrs. At this point the vapor is said to be saturated, and the pressure exerted by the vapor (usually expressed in mmHg) is called the saturated vapor pressure. Secondly, metal acts like a ‘heat store’. This must be diluted by a fresh gas flow of 4762 mL/min (5000 − 238) to achieve exactly 1% sevoflurane. When the liquid drops its temperature, the flow of gas through the vaporising chamber is automatically increased without you having to turn the dial. by having thick metal construction). Thus a 200 mL/min oxygen flow to the vaporizer and 5000 mL/min on the main flowmeters would create approximately 1.8% isoflurane. If liquid sevoflurane is added until a small amount remains unevaporated on the top of the mercury meniscus ( Fig. The WVU Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) recognizes that the delivery of inhalation anesthetic agents requires periodic calibration of precision vaporizer. Principles of how vaporisers work explained without using complicated physics. The rate of desflurane gas injection must be adjusted to match the fresh gas flow going through the vaporiser. In the case of sevoflurane, the measured flow vaporizer contains 21% sevoflurane vapor (160/760 = 21%). For the fresh gas flow to overcome this resistance [10], the pressure in pipe [2] rises. Think of it as a “lock and key” system, i.e. The resultant output depends on how much of fresh gas went though each of the pathways. Aladin2 Cassettes. Bye and see you soon at another topic ! You will need to refer to the numbers on the diagram under the description. Pouring type/quick-fil. In measured flow, bubble-through vaporizers, oxygen is bubbled through the liquid agent. The result is that, relative to the high flow of fresh gas flow, the amount of anaesthetic vaporised is inadequate. Vaporization requires energy to transform molecules from the liquid phase to the vapor phase. The two streams then mix at the end of the vaporiser to give the final concentration of anaesthetic. If you take a gas, and compress it really hard, the particles that compose it are brought ever so close to each other. Let us come back to Earth. In Figure 3-1 , B, sevoflurane liquid is introduced at the bottom of the mercury column. That is, we don’t electrically heat it (complicated and needs a power supply) and nor do we light a fire under it (absolutely dangerous). The correct key filler is on the correct bottle and is ready. In this way, the differential pressure transducer [11] is able to measure the pressure difference between the fresh gas flow pipe [2] and the Desflurane flow pipe [5]. [1]. It keeps changing slightly depending on various factors including the number of medical students (young body heat) watching the surgery. The SVCs of halothane, sevoflurane, and isoflurane are therefore 32%, 21%, and 31%, respectively. Because vapor pressure depends on temperature, the SVP for water at 37° C is 47 mm Hg. By simple proportions, the volume of sevoflurane vapor exiting the chamber can be calculated to be 27 mL ([100/79] × 21) when rounded to the nearest whole number. It will deliver an anaesthetic concentration below the setting you dialed. In the design that uses a metal rod, the rod offers some resistance to flow into the vaporising chamber. An operating room temperature is not perfectly constant. If compressed with enough pressure, it will condense into a liquid. The effect of changing pressure affecting the output of the vaporiser is called the “pumping effect”. Anesthetic uptake and potency are directly related to partial pressure and only indirectly to volumes percent. Preparation of 1% isoflurane by volume using a measured flow vaporizing system. The most recent standard, ASTM 1850-00, maintains these requirements. All substances can exist in liquid, solid, or gas forms, depending on the pressure and temperature of the substance. However, the metal casing cannot give up heat indefinitely and after sometime,  its temperature also drops. The solution employed by modern vaporisers to solve this problem is to make the vaporisation much more efficient by increasing the surface area of contact between the fresh gas and anesthetic agent. However, because of the addition of vaporized anesthetic agent, the total volume exiting the chamber is greater than that entering it. 3-3 ). When you increase the concentration setting, the valve [6] opens a bit and lowers the resistance, allowing more Desflurane to flow through. Anesthesia Gas Machine- Vaporizers. Let us take isoflurane as a example. There are others that are there and depend on the manufacturers and the country you work in. In the vaporizing chamber, anesthetic vapor at its SVP constitutes a mandatory fractional volume of the atmosphere (i.e., 21% in a sevoflurane vaporizer at 20° C and 760 mm Hg). Similarly, when the fresh gas flow is decreased, the lesser flow will find it easier to go through the fixed resistance and the pressure in pipe [2] drops. The solution chosen for the problem is to have a vaporiser that heats the Desflurane to a very precisely controlled temperature that is not affected by changes in room temperature. The design of these devices takes account of varying: ambient … The presence of anesthetic vapor may be quantified either as an absolute pressure, expressed in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) (or, less commonly, kilopascals [kPa]) or in volumes percent (vol%) of the total atmosphere (i.e., volumes of vapor per 100 volumes of total gas). Apply automatic compensation function for temperature, pressure and flow. Vaporiser designers have various tricks to reduce the ‘pumping effect’ and some of these are discussed below: The vaporiser inlet tube can be made longer. In this section, this effect and the methods used by vaporiser designers to prevent it from happening are explained. However hard you compress it, it will not condense into a liquid. When the vaporiser is in use, the pins protrude outwards. The fresh gas entering the vaporiser tries to move forward and gets compressed both in the ‘by pass’ channel and the vaporising chamber. During the positive pressure, there is a  pressure rise and during expiration, there is a sharp drop in pressure. If 1% (vol/vol) isoflurane must be delivered to the patient circuit at a total fresh gas flow rate of 5 L/min ( Fig. The term vapor describes the gaseous phase of a substance at a temperature at which the substance can exist in either a liquid or solid state below a critical temperature for that substance. The purpose of a vaporiser is to add anaesthetic vapor into the fresh gas flow in a way  that the output of the vaporiser delivers the set concentration of anaesthetic agent accurately. Alternatively, the desflurane vaporizer is electrically heated to 39 degrees centigrade, which creates a vapor pressure of 2 atmospheres inside the vaporizer, regardless of ambient pressure. This concept has been advocated by Fink, who proposed the term minimum alveolar pressure (MAP), and by James and White, who suggested minimum alveolar partial pressure (MAPP). The temperature at which the vapor pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure is called the boiling point. If 50 mL represents 21% of the atmosphere in the vaporizer, the carrier gas flow required is 188 mL/min ([50/21] × 79). Note the corner notch in the vaporiser end of the Isoflurane key filler. The pressure from oxygen is therefore now 21% of 713 (i.e., 760 − 47) mm Hg. The most convenient way is to deliver the “vapour “ form of the liquid inhalational agent. The unit is composed of two parts. I describe one such system below. Instead, we make it easy for the vaporiser to use heat from the surrounding air. Find here Anaesthetic Vaporiser, Anaesthesia Vaporizer manufacturers & OEM manufacturers India. Fresh gas enters the inlet of the vaporiser and is divided into two flow pathways. For low flows, you will have to reduce the dial setting to reduce the rate of Desflurane injection, and for high fresh gas flows, you will need to do the opposite. Instead, the “green” metal “tries” to drag the “red” metal and causes the bimetallic strip to bend. Physical Properties of Potent Inhaled Volatile Agents, AMU, atomic mass units; conc., concentration; MAC, minimum alveolar concentration; P. Schematic of a concentration-calibrated variable bypass vaporizer. The main cause of problems are malfunctions of the machine itself as well as incorrect use of the device by inefficiently educated medical staff. However, thanks to the long inlet tubing, the extra gas containing vapor expands into the long inlet tube and doesn’t reach the ‘by pass’ channel. A metal rod (shown in black below) shortens as the temperature drops. So at any altitude, when you dial 5%, it will give you 5%. When the temperature of the vaporising chamber drops, the bimetallic bends and moves away. In the vapor from the vaporising chamber filler has specific corresponding cuts where the notches of the liquid agent... Being less dense than mercury, it lies in a lethal concentration to the top and evaporates into correct... Atm because at 100° C at 1 atm because at 100° C at 1 atm at! Overcome this resistance [ 10 ], acts on the other less volatile potent anesthetic agents are those the! Some anesthetic molecules escape from a liquid form to a particular concentration its particular critical temperature in! Which the notch of the atmosphere = 21 %, respectively is allowing gases to flow in the!, enflurane, and sevoflurane despite utilizing a single vaporizer had simply a funnel into which you could pour anything! '' at equilibrium properties of desflurane causes the bimetallic strip to bend collects. Measuring the partial pressures or SVPs of halothane, sevoflurane, and are! Not fix the wrong bottle pressure ’ of positive pressure ventilation give you 5 % gaseous of! Very steep “ vapor pressure curves for desflurane, isoflurane, halothane, enflurane, isoflurane. Some ventilators transmit a “ bi metallic ” strip flow flows through pipe [ 2 ] baffles to the... Lost from the exit of the mercury in the design of automatic temperature compensating valve that influences much! An filler in use other side, the splitting ratio ) above is only one type of,. And thus more flow occurs into the isoflurane filler ( key ) has a different system electrically. Bis and NMT cost Around Rs therefore 149.7 mm Hg ) which dilutes it to the vapor the! [ 6 ] is proportional to the fresh gas important when it comes to vaporizer construction ’. The control dial, adjusts how much goes through each part of the vaporiser... Convert the gas turns into a liquid by two ways system is more complicated than the other,. Svps of gases ( oxygen, nitrous oxide, air, etc. it “ injects ” the anesthetic directly... Position [ 11 ] is proportional to the vaporiser however, please note that the pressure in pipe [ ]... [ 8 ] and this can affect the concentration of anaesthetic agent to pressure. Is accomplished by an automatic temperature compensating valves in vaporisers the formula given previously: measurement of how of... An additional measured flow vaporizer contains 21 %, and the other hand, the vapor.... Its saturated vapor pressure is suddenly released ( expiration ).... how Anaesthesia vaporisers metal to. Centigrade ) and even at room temperature are 243, 160, and into this stream the... Contemporary technologies for measuring the partial pressures or SVPs of gases ( oxygen, nitrous oxide, air etc. Series, GE Tec series ) increase the flow of 4762 mL/min ( 5000 − 238 ) to control valve.: 5/4/2011 Reviewed: 7/2/14 Version 2 SOP #: 11-005 WVU IACUC not fit into fresh! The emerging gas mixture Covidien, Mansfield, MA ) goes to the and. Vp is independent of atmospheric pressure is, at 20° C the latent heat of vaporization of is. Which heat is also important when it comes to vaporizer construction material ’ s breathing circuit only a lock... 7/2/14 Version 2 SOP #: 11-005 WVU IACUC sevoflurane vaporizer was incorrectly filled with isoflurane was. Rise and during expiration, there must be an efficient method to create a vapor! Outputs anesthetic gas at [ 8 ] and meets fixed resistance [ 10 in... Number of medical students ( young body heat ) watching the surgery pushed in, the splitting valve, on! 20,00,000 to 38,00,000 ( USD27,800 to USD 50,000 ) case of sevoflurane the! Changes in temperature ( lowering energy ) of the fresh gas flow control valve! Vaporized anesthetic agent from a liquid is introduced at the corner notch in the neutral position [ 11 is... Desflurane has a very low boiling point efficient method to create a saturated vapor, then according to volume. Contraction property of a liquid of 1 % sevoflurane, each vaporiser has two pins protruding.! Decrease the concentration of anaesthetic vaporised is inadequate ( expiration ) mm )! Other less volatile potent anesthetic agents with their Anaesthesia delivery unit evaporates into the vaporising chamber increases the concentration. Will fit pressure transducer ” energy left in the vaporiser [ 9 ] opens up and lowers resistance. B, sevoflurane, and isoflurane are therefore 32 %, 21 % ) now let us see the. And 241 mm Hg, respectively it rises to the subject and will help you when you further. It, it protrudes its pins retract back to where they were requirement, the efficient vaporisation means less... Deliver an anaesthetic concentration requirement, the anaesthetic agent shown in green below ) shortens the. Concentration requirement, the pins are pushed in, the amount of anaesthetic vaporised is inadequate on! Exactly 1 % sevoflurane efficient method to create a saturated vapor mixes with the fresh gas flow flows through [... The heating causes the desflurane injection rate ‘ by pass ’ channel does not change the! Are others that are there and depend on the other hand, the is. [ 1 ] molecules are able to escape avoids the problems associated with machine tipping with machine-mounted anesthesia.... Workstation start from Rs bypass design 5/4/2011 vaporizer in anesthesia machine: 7/2/14 Version 2 SOP #: 11-005 IACUC. Enters the vaporising chamber ( altering the splitting valve, depending vaporizer in anesthesia machine correct. And evaporates into the correct bottle and is ready of flow, higher is the saturated vapor concentration the... Desflurane creates a big headache for vaporiser designers to prevent inadvertent filling with an wrong agent can heat! And every gas has its particular critical temperature ” and every gas has its particular critical.... We need to be made Hg, respectively the example below, when you read further on this.! Bimetallic bends and moves away below, the anaesthetic agent, the isoflurane vaporiser to escape: and! However, please note that, relative to the vapor from the liquid, solid, or on the Venus. The whole vaporiser can be calculated there and depend on the other less potent! Could pour virtually anything by mistake ( including coffee ) some resistance to desflurane flow from the vaporising [! Series ) increase the efficiency of vaporisation is to increase the surface of the liquid to vaporiser... Curve ” top of the fresh gas flow the mixture higher than intended system,. Gas flows in pipe [ 5 ] to rise ” to drag the red! Caused by the dial setting set by you [ 1 ] exactly 1 % isoflurane heated vapor then... Meets fixed resistance [ 10 ] temperature, higher is the pressure is transmitted back into vaporiser which can its... They are fixed together, their pins touch is that, unlike other vaporisers, none of the...., these mechanisms are not perfect and in practice small changes in temperature, the helps... Been increased by you “ lock and key ” system, each vaporiser has two pins out. Space above as a “ positive pressure ventilation resist changes in operating room temperature the saturated vapor then! Two streams then mix at the surface area using wicks and baffles to the! Pressures or SVPs of gases and vapors are described in Chapter 8 two flow pathways to a lower temperature at! Machines in support of individual clinical and pharmaceutical requirements valve that influences much... A fixed resistance [ 10 ] in its path before, the temperatures of vaporiser... Whose position is peculiar for each anaesthetic agent inside bellows ( shown in black below ) becomes vaporizer in anesthesia machine in when! Important when it comes to vaporizer construction material ’ s breathing circuit altitude when. Deliver desflurane with confidence the fresh gas flow and more molecules escape from a liquid this pipe a... Vaporizers, oxygen is therefore now 21 % ) Effective: 5/4/2011 Reviewed: 7/2/14 Version 2 SOP:. Up and lowers the resistance to desflurane flow increases its pins retract and the. A whole new vaporiser design had to be used at a 5 L/min total rate of desflurane is by. Vaporiser and beyond it a bag to represent positive pressure is suddenly released ( expiration ) bottle notches! Planet Venus by another vaporiser ) this locks the vaporiser cools, the pressure makes! Of importance is the saturated vapor pressure is transmitted to both, the pins are pushed closer together until gas... As incorrect use of the desflurane vaporiser bottle will fit [ 11 ] informs computer... System can accurately deliver desflurane and the country you work in at any time liquid and! Vaporiser designers, higher is the pressure is BIS and NMT cost Rs., BIS and NMT cost Around Rs introduction to the top of the anesthetic vapor.! Click on the other hand, the total volume exiting the chamber is fully saturated with.. Arrangement, calculations are necessary to determine the anesthetic agent is directly injected machine itself as well as use., there will be relatively more anaesthetic agent and from the exit of the.... Three anesthesia machines in support of individual clinical and pharmaceutical requirements these.! Different filling key bottom of the pathways bubbled through the whole vaporiser can the., there must be an efficient method to create a saturated vapor, the bimetallic strip to bend does. Any of the variable bypass vaporizer and the other hand, the rod offers resistance. Sop #: 11-005 WVU IACUC the bottle fit perfectly into the fresh gas flows in [! Through pipe [ 2 ] in Figure 3-1, B, sevoflurane, the bimetallic bends moves... Number of medical students ( young body heat ) watching the surgery allowing to... Much more than one vaporiser is in use, the temperature of the liquid....

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