tactile sensor definition
As soon as the force is removed, the button action is shut off. To achieve this goal, Yousef et al. In: Snyder, W E and St Clair, J (1978). Chen, N; Rink, R and Zhang, H (1995a). Learn more. This has led to the integration of optical tactile sensors into various robotic systems. Methods and technologies for the implementation of large-scale robot tactile sensors. Magnetoresistive and magnetoelastic sensors detect variations in magnetic fields generated by the application of mechanical stress. (2013). Muhammad, H et al. Piezoresistive sensors are generally fabricated in conductive rubber or made with piezoresistive ink and stamped with a pattern. The tactile sensors can be subdivided into three subgroups: 1. The thermal sensing involves detecting thermal gradients in the skin, which are correspondent to both the temperature and the thermal conductivity of an object. An artificial whisker sensor for robotics. Active antenna for contact sensing. There are several different tactile sensors, used for a range of applications, such as sensing normal pressure, skin deformation, and dynamic tactile sensing. As a final example, Hsiao et al. joint angles, limbs positions, velocity and motor torque. Properties of cutaneous mechanoreceptors in the human hand related to touch sensation. This page was last modified on 29 May 2015, at 06:50. The main tactile sensing technologies developed by this time were capacitive, piezoresistive, piezoelectric, magnetic, inductive, optical and strain gauges, allowing the successful development of accurate devices for detection of object shape, size, texture, force and temperature (De Rossi, 1991). Tactile sensing relates to mapping contact pressures across a surface, often across complex surfaces like the hand, head, and other human body parts.The more often-used terms "pressure" and "force" are related to "tactile," but both cannot capture the full complexity of contact mechanics. Pearson, M et al. Beyond the guidelines presented in Table 1, temperature tolerance, size, weight, power consumption and durability are some additional important criteria (Najarian et al., 2009). The use of the iCub fingertip sensor with a probabilistic approach presented an intelligent and robust object shape exploration and extraction (Martinez-Hernandez et al., 2013). Inspired by the repertoire of capabilities and benefits that the sense of touch offers to the animal kingdom, different tactile sensor technologies have been developed, since the early days of robotics, that can enhance the performance and functionality of robotic systems allowing them to touch, feel and explore their environments. Vision is sometimes asserted to be the most important human sensory modality perhaps underestimating the role of the sense of touch. Bio-inspired approach for the design and characterization of a tactile sensory system for a cybernetic prosthetic hand. Anthropomorphic robotic soft fingertip with randomly distributed receptors. A sponge-painted wall is an example of a texture that greatly alters the atmosphere of a room without adding physical definition. However, optical sensors are attractive due to their potential for high-spatial resolution, robustness to electrical interference, light weight, and their potential to resolve the wiring complexity problem presented by other sensor types such as capacitive and piezoresistive (Nicholls and Lee, 1989; Yousef et al., 2011). Biomechanics: Robotic whiskers used to sense features. Ratnasingam, S and McGinnity, T (2011). This article discusses types of tactile sensors and their working. Psychophysical studies have shown that the human haptic touch is rich in information for interaction, exploration, manipulation and extraction of object properties such as texture, shape, hardness and temperature (Lederman and Klatzky, 1987). Nowlin, W C (1991). Multifunctional tactile sensors with multi-elements for fingers. (2009). Son, J S; Howe, R D; Wang, J and Hager, G D (1996). In the 1970s a robot tactile sensor using this magnetic approach was developed for object classification based on their contours (Pugh, 1986). A similar approach based on geometrical moments, but using a KUKA arm with a planar tactile sensors, was able to explore and recognise the shape of various objects (Li et al., 2013). An adaptive threshold approach applied to tactile images obtained from a CMU DD Arm II allowed the recognition of object orientation (Berger and Khosla, 1988). Tactile sensors based on capacitive transduction operate by measuring the variations of capacitance from an applied load over a parallel plate capacitor. Contact detection and release of an object. Human skins directly translate mechanical and thermal information into electrical signals and get them processed in the central nervous systems. Advantages of magnetic sensor technologies include high sensitivity, wide dynamic range, very low hysteresis, linear response and general robustness. These types of sensors can sense load anywhere like the distal link of a manipulator and in constrains as a skin sensor. The growth of robotic applications in healthcare, agriculture, social assistance, autonomous systems and unstructured environments has created a pressing need for effective tactile sensors. This technology also presents various advantages in terms of high sensitivity, long-term drift stability, low temperature sensitivity, low power consumption and sensing of normal or tangential forces (Lee and Wise, 1982). Nakamoto, H; Kobayashi, F; Imamura, N; Shirasawa, H and Kojima, F (2008). A rolling and enclosing exploration procedure was implemented for robust object recognition based on the kurtosis observed on each tactile fingertip of a five-fingered robotic hand (Nakamoto et al., 2008). Hand movements: A window into haptic object recognition. If something is tactile, it has a surface that is pleasant or…. Piezoresistive tactile sensors have been used in many robotic applications, particularly where high accuracy is not a design criteria (Beebe et al., 1995; Kerpa et al., 2003; Weiss and Woern, 2004). Pressure and force sensors in robotic fingertips have allowed the achievement of reliable control during object detection and manipulation (Dang et al., 2011; Chen et al., 1995b). Highly soft viscoelastic robot skin with a contact object-location-sensing capability. Lee, Y S and Wise, K D (1982). Recent industrial and medical applications require microscopic servomechanisms, known as microactuators, to detect pressure and measure force based on hydraulics (De Volder and Reynaerts, 2010). 3. the sense by which contact of an object with the skin is recognized. Tactile sensing in robotics. Johansson, R and Westling, G (1984). cutaneous sense and the kinesthetic sense. Whisking with robots: From rat vibrissae to biomimetic technology for active touch. Hydraulic technology uses a type of actuator that converts fluid pressure into mechanical motion. Harmon, L D (1982). Simultaneous localisation and mapping on a multi-degree of freedom biomimetic whiskered robot. Tactile means that there is an improved sense of touch or perception of touch. Lee, M H and Nicholls, H R (1999). A variety of open robotic platforms that employ different tactile sensor technologies in their hands, fingertips, arms, forearms and torso have been developed for the study of embodied cognition, exploration, perception, recognition, learning and interaction (Schmitz et al., 2011; Weiss and Woern, 2004; Edin et al., 2006; Metta et al., 2008; Brooks et al., 1999). Hall effect sensors have also proved to be an effective way of detecting multi-directional deflections of an artificial whisker (Pearson et al., 2007, Sullivan et al., 2009). Object shape exploration has been investigated using different perception and control approaches implemented in a variety of tactile robotic platforms. For example, tactile sensors can be sensitive to either static or dynamic forces, and can be employed for proprioception or for exteroception(Fraden, 2004). Touch Sensors: detect and measure contact forces at defined points. Dario, P and De Rossi, D (1985). The working of a touch sensor is similar to that of a simple switch.When there is contact with the surface of the touch sensor, the circuit is closed inside the sensor and there is a flow of current. tactile definition: 1. related to the sense of touch 2. However, they are susceptible to magnetic interference and noise. The development of artificial antennae fabricated with pressure and force sensors has allowed modelling of the contact detection and exploration behaviour of insects such as ants and cockroaches (Kaneko, 1994; Ueno and Kaneko, 1994; Kaneko et al., 1998). 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